HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY

          1. Types of Knowledge

Deductive—Logic, Mathematical Propositions

Inductive—empirical


2. Historical

Greeks...rational, but not empirical—didn’t check theories with experiment;

Lest ye have faith, ye will not understand.”

Warned against taking Scripture literally (see handouts)

Some things can be known/determined by both Reason and Faith

Some things can be known only by Faith / Revelation

That which is known by both Faith & Reason confirms that which is known only by Faith.

Types of causes: necessary and contingent, primary and secondary—God is a primary cause; works in nature by secondary causes;

Nature is nothing but the plan of some art, namely a divine one, put into things themselves, by which those things move towards a concrete end: as if the man who builds up a ship could give to the pieces of wood that they could move by themselves to produce the form of ship.” Octo libros Physicorum Aristotelis Expositio. Book 2, Chap.8, lectio 14, no.268.

3. Science Is ....????


4. The Galileo Affair

A Review of "Science and The Church,

Phases of Venus

Moons of Jupiter

Explanation of the tides

Circular planetary orbits (“perfect”); Kepler: elliptical orbits

No parallelax (apparent shift in position of the stars as the earth orbits)

Bellarmine—willingness to modify Scripture interpretation;

Pope Urban VI

Renaissance Catholic Fundamentalists

House arrest not onerous (threat of torture—pro forma)


    5. Pope John Paul II Reaches out to Scientists

Addresses to Scientific Congresses, Sponsorship of Science/Religion Conferences, Restudy of Galileo Affair.


  1. Philosophers against Materialism/Physicalism.